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Opuk nature reserve
Republic of Crimea
Visiting of reserve paths
tel.: (36562) 57-007
«The Opuk»
Route #1
«Between the sea and the lake»
Route #2
Route #3
Sea route #4

Opuk nature reserve

Opuk nature reserve was established in May 1998 in the Eastern part of the Crimea for the preservation and restoration of steppe nature complexes Eastern Crimea and aquatic complexes of tohe Black sea on the basis of the same name of the nature monument of the local value (in 1947.), reserve tracts (since 1980.), as well as aquatic-coastal complex of Cape Opuk on the Black sea (60 ha), including the islands, islands with name «Rocks-Ships» (Elken-Kaya) -2 ha, bequeathed since 1972.

This is the most protected object of the Kerch peninsula. Its area is 1592,3 hectares including 62 hectares of water area of the Black sea with islands «Rocks-Ships» (2 ha), which are presented in the sea 4 km from the shore.

The nearest village, located to the east at a distance of 6 km from the borders of the reserve, іs Yakovenkovo (where there is a base of the reserve), which is included in the Zavetnoe village council, a region centre - settlment Lenino.

In the composition of the reserve consists of plots of land in the vicinity of Cape Opuk, mountain Opuk (185 m above sea level.), Koyash lagune lake depth is 0,6m and the adjacent waters of the Black sea, which in the aggregate are of great environmental value. Mountain Opuk is a hill, limited steep ledges and dismembered deep (up to 20 m) and wide tectonic cracks in separate blocks, form one of the most attractions of the Kerch steppe landscape. Chemical mud composition of Кoyash lake same Saki deposit.

On the territory of the reserve there are ruins of ancient Greek city Kimmerik (VI century B.C. – IV century B.C.), underground citadel, dozens of ancient wells and other.

On the territory of the reserve, on the border of land and sea, unique climatic factors and other features contributed to the formation and conservation of unique flora and fauna and landscape complexes, which have no analogs not only in Crimea, but also in Ukraine.

The flora of the reserve is 766 species: 452 species are presented higher vascular plants, 16 - bryophyta, 113 - lichens, 176 - algae. Endemic nucleus of the reserve - 48 species of vascular plants. The rare fund of the reserve is represented by 23 species of vascular plants listed in the Red book of Ukraine. Among them Glaucium flavum, Paeonia tenuifolia, Viola alba,Crambe mitridatis, Astrodaucus littoralis, Tulipa biebersteiniąna, T.schrenkii, Crocus tauricus and seven species of feather grass.

The fauna of the reserve has steppe character, has more than 1000 species, most of which (of 74.8 per cent) presented the invertebrate animals. Among vertebrates - 30 species of mammals, 206 - birds, 9 reptiles, 49 fish. Rare fauna has 72 species listed in the Red book of Ukraine, 8 - in the European Red list, 87 - to the Berne convention. Among the crustaceans residents of the reserve there are crabs - stone, marble and hairy. Enough is a large population of rare reptiles: Pseudopus apodus, Coluber jugularis, Elaphe quatuorlineata, living in the limestone cracks and alluvial deposits. It is also found steppe viper.

On the territory, water area and the vicinity of the nature reserve established residence for more than 200 species of birds. Breeds of not less than 54 species, including 11 - in open grassy and about 17- in rocky habitats. Not less than 33 species are wintered in reserve. About 112 species are migrating to. Ornithofauna of Opuk includes 32 rare species registered in the Red book of Ukraine. Among them – shag, ruddy shelduck, saker, рeregrine, сrane, bustard, little bustard, stone curlew, kentish plover, rose-coloured starling, grey shrike, black-headed bunting and others.

Among the mammals are fox, european (brown) hare, rare animals: great jerboa, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Mustela eversmanni. In the Black sea area of the species listed in the Red book of Ukraine, can be found: Hippocampus guttulatus microstephanus, Callionymus pusillus, Salmo trutta labrax, Phocoena phocoena relicta, bottlenose dolphin, as well as seal.

The territory of the Opuk included in the list of IBA territories, important for the conservation of populations of birds within Europe.

"Аquatic-coastal complex of Cape Opuk", an area of 775 ha, entered in the list of wetlands of international importance (Ramsar convention) in 2004.

Visiting the reserve is only possible from the scientific and environmental-educational objective when accompanied by a responsible staff of the institution. For this purpose on the territory of the reserve developed three drained watershed ecological paths: "The Opuk" (route #1), "Between the sea and the lake" (route #2), "Coastal" (route#3) and a sea route "Elken-Kaya" (№4).

Historical and cultural attractions of the ONR

1. The ancient settlement of Кіmmerik (VI century B.C. - IV century A.D.) - the south- west seaside slope of the mountain Opuk, area of 5 hectares.

2. The fortress (IV century A.D.) - the eastern edge of the plateau of the mountain Opuk at a height of 170-165 above sea level.

3. Settlement surroundings Chebakskaya beams and around the soles of the eastern slope of the Opuk (V century B.C. - IV- III centuries B.C.) is located between the mountain Opuk and the village of Yakovenkovo.

4. Settlement of Kirkoyash basin (V century B.C. - VII-IX centuries B.C.) - located on the eastern slope of a beam, in the south-eastern slope of the valley to the east of the mountains Ostraya.

5. Settlement surroundings Коyash salt lake (IV-III centuries B.C.) - a settlement of ancient and early medieval time, should the earth wall and moat.

6. Ancient settlement (I / II - IV centuries A.D. ) - the southern slope of the mountain Opuk, which is the lower tier of the Opuk quarries.

7. Settlement over the source (VII-IX centuries A.D.) – middle-aged monument in the valley of the southern slope of the mountain, one of the largest settlements of the Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture on the Kerch peninsula.

8. Manor on the bay of the Eastern (VII-IX centuries B.C.) - a settlement in which descends ancient road, canvas and the retaining wall with the vicar of limestone, which are preserved in the microrelief.

9. A monument to military surveyors D.Vidjul and В. Моspan (1941-12-29) - on a hill west slope of the mountain Opuk, who died on the rocks of the Ship-Stone in the years of the great Patriotic war, which provided a section for the planning of a sea landing.

Sandy bank
Sandy bank
East bay
East bay
Canyon of Gerakla
Canyon of Gerakla
Rocks are ships  (El'ken-Kaya)
Rocks are ships
Ruins of ancient  Kimmerika
Ruins of ancient
Opukskoe the curved seashore
Opukskoe the curved

Republic of Crimea, Leninist district,
Yakovenkovo sat down, Chornomorska street, 1-a
tel.: (06562) 57-007
Republic of Crimea, 298108, Feodosiya,
boulevard Admiral 7E/4N

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